sweet sorghum for biofuel production

Sweet sorghum is an excellent source for the production of biofuel and green energy. However, significant progress has been made in optimizing the regeneration procedures and transformation systems for grain and sweet sorghum in the recent past [133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140]. Halophytes as bioenergy crops. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Recently, Raghuwanshi and colleagues [144] reported optimization of transformation procedure for sweet sorghum using particle bombardment and immature embryo as the explant. Schmer MR, Vogel KP, Varvel GE, Follett RF, Mitchell RB, Jin VL. Currently, about 2.5% of the world’s transportation fuels are produced from the crop plants including maize, sugarcane, and vegetable oils [6]. In Africa, where most of the wild germplasm has originated, intermediate varieties are also common. BMC Plant Biol. Especially, in the varieties adapted to temperate climate zones, this phase can be further extended by 20–30 days beyond what is reported for tropical varieties [44, 58]. Renewable sources of energy can help mitigate the negative effects associated with the use of fossil fuels and represent a growing share of the energy portfolio. Sweet Sorghum is widely cultivated in USA, Brazil, India, China, Mexico, Sudan, Argentina, and many other countries in Asia and Europe. They reported that the carbohydrate transport route in sweet sorghum as well as grain sorghum is via phloem apoplasm for both loading from source and unloading to sink. At NARI, indigenous germplasm collections (forage and grain varieties) were crossed with exotic lines (American Germplasm) to identify superior germplasm with features like high cane yield and high Brix percentage [28]. A simple and efficient Agrobacterium mediated procedure for transformation of tomato. Nebraska: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; 2010. Mace ES, Jordan DR. CAS  Apparently, there is an urgent need to explore the sustainable energy sources, which can not only fulfill our energy needs but more importantly mitigate the adverse impact on the environment. Front Plant Sci. 2015;25:151–61. Lu X-P, Yun J-F, Gao C-P, Acharya S. Quantitative trait loci analysis of economically important traits in Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense hybrid. According to a recent AICRP annual report, 16 hybrids and 23 varieties are being evaluated at various locations [82]. Pesq Agropec Bras. In: Paterson AH, editor. http://articles.extension.org/pages/26634/sweet-sorghum-for-biofuel-production. Springer Nature. Genomics of the Saccharinae. Sweet sorghum thrives better under drier and warmer conditions than many other crops and is grown primarily for forage, silage, and syrup production. The well-developed root structure that can extend up to 2 m below ground aids to obtain moisture from the soil. In possibly one of the largest government grants given to anyone for research on a single feedstock, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center . Ethanol production technology from sweet sorghum has been steadily gaining momentum all over the world. Ritter and colleagues studied the genetic diversity between grain and sweet sorghum cultivars through AFLP markers [66]. 2014;17(4):428–38. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=454806. International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has a large repository for S. bicolor (L.) Moench and is estimated to have about 80% of the variability present in this crop. Callus induction media were designated as MSI (MS), MBI (MS + B5), and NBI (N6 salts + B5) for induction. Leveraging such datasets, SorGSD (http://sorgsd.big.ac.cn/]) has been developed that provides a web-based query interface to search SNPs in sorghum accessions [114]. Agribusiness. Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation. The genus Sorghum is divided into five subgenera including Sorghum, Stiposorghum, Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, and Parasorghum. The diversion of crop land for cultivation of sweet sorghum does not arise with as it meets food, fuel, and fodder requirement. CSH 22SS is the most popular hybrid of sweet sorghum that was developed at IIMR and produce high sugar yields. However, later studies showed clustering of sweet sorghum lines with other S. bicolor genotypes suggesting that sweet sorghum has a polyphyletic origin and therefore, apart from race bicolor, may have parentage from other previously mentioned races as well [66]. The highest genetic and phenotypic diversity in both wild and cultivated accessions of sorghum are found in the central Africa [68]. Overall, the results of SWEETFUEL project suggested sweet sorghum as a strategic complementary crop to sugarcane in tropical climates, whereas cold tolerance remains a major constraint in temperate areas. Like grain sorghum, it has its origin in Africa [40] but migration routes from Africa to other parts of the world and its emergence as a specific variety of S. bicolor are not clear. 321. Sjemenarstvo. Sweet sorghum also produces several potential native products such as cellulose for paper production, waxes, proteins, and allelopathic compounds such as sorgoleone. 2014;62(6):939–50. Vermerris W, Erickson J, Wright D, Newman Y, Rainbolt C. Production of biofuel crops in Florida: Sweet sorghum. For callus induction, all the three combination produced same efficiency. Saballos A, Ejeta G, Sanchez E, Kang C, Vermerris W. A genomewide analysis of the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase family in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] identifies SbCAD2 as the Brown midrib6 gene. Yield of sweet sorghum is directly affected by the planting time. Biofuels are sustainable and renewable source of energy derived from organic matter in the form of biomass. In: Madhusudhana R, Rajendrakumar P, Raghavendra Rao KV, Tonapi VA, Rajendranagar P, editors. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. 1099. Calvino M, Messing J. 1040;2015(16):1–11. Edwards EJ, Osborne CP, Stromberg CA, Smith SA, Bond WJ, Christin PA, Cousins AB, Duvall, Fox DL, Consortium CG, et al. Biofuel. Bihmidine S, Julius BT, Dweikat I, Braun DM. Techniques for developing new cultivars. Fourteen cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes in sorghum genome have been identified; out of which, SbCAD2 has been shown to play a major role in lignification and is also the target gene in brown midrib 6 mutants [173, 174]. Because of significant microcolinearity between sorghum, rice, and Brachypodium genomes [8], tools developed for rice/Brachypodium [19, 109] can serve as an important framework to strengthen the functional genomic studies in sorghum. Zheng et al. Harlan JR, de Wet JMJ. Key words: Sweet sorghum, carbohydrate, bioethanol, biofuel. Chopra et al. For instance, there are many durra-bicolor intermediates in Ethiopian highlands [67]. Crop plants are one of the best sources of renewable energy which can be used as feedstock for biofuel production. et al. Further, as suggested by Sharma and colleagues [143], removing leaf-like structures from calli on the regeneration medium can enhance regeneration efficiency and may be helpful to enhance shoot regeneration from proliferating calli. Whole-genome sequencing reveals untapped genetic potential in Africa’s indigenous cereal crop sorghum. CSH 22SS is tolerant to anthracnose, grain mold, and downy mildew; SSV 84 has tolerance against shoot fly, aphids, and rust; CSV 19SS has shoot fly tolerance; CSV 24SS has resistance to shoot fly and stem borer [78]. Ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is safer for environment due to low sulfur content, low biological, and chemical oxygen demand and high octane rating [36]. Olugbemi O, Abiola Ababyomi Y. 2013;14(1):95–105. The most common formulation used for callus induction is MS basal medium with 2 mg/l 2,4-d, 0.5–1 mg/l kinetin, and 3% sucrose [135, 139, 141, 142]. Sorghum genetic transformation by particle bombardment. France, Italy, and Germany are the main centers of sweet sorghum research in European Union. 2014;19(7):9114–33. Authors have also provided tools to construct networks of genes based on the co-expression, predicted protein–protein interactions, miRNA-target pairs, and a GBrowse to visualize the SNPs. Sweet sorghum ideotypes: genetic improvement of stress tolerance. Schmer and colleagues [5] reported that usage of corn and switchgrass as source of biofuels reduced the greenhouse gas emissions by −29 to −396 g of CO2 equivalent per mega joule of ethanol per year. It suggests a strong conservation among flowering and plant height-related genes and miRNAs that accounts to a certain extent, for the linkage drag observed in drought and flowering traits [191]. Characterization of improved sweet sorghum genotypes for biochemical parameters, sugar yield and its attributes at different phenological stages. In: ICRISAT, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India; 2006. p. 1–12. Article  Nan L, Hongtu M, Xiuying H, Huaibi L, Xide X, Xiuying H, Ruidong H, Hongfei Z, Wanxuan Z, Shoujiang Z, et al. Sui N, Yang Z, Liu M, Wang B. Loss of an MDR transporter in compact stalks of maize br2 and sorghum dw3 mutants. Regassa TH, Wortmann CS. bicolor. Extensive usage of these crops as biofuel feedstock will not only threaten food security but would also compete with other food crops for irrigation and arable land resources. Sweet sorghum is any of the many varieties of the sorghum grass whose stalks have a high sugar content. However, Bihmidine et al. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review CA as a sustainable production system for sweet sorghum as a potential biofuel feedstock. Industrial crops: breeding for bioenergy and bioproducts. The combining ability of the parental lines and hybrids has recently been used to select parental lines for future crossing strategies and screen the hybrids for commercial cultivation [77]. The silage, derived from bagasse, is rich in micronutrients and minerals and hence, is a nutritious source of animal feed especially for the dairy cattle. Visarada KBRS, Prasad GS, Royer M. Genetic transformation and evaluation of two sweet sorghum genotypes for resistance to spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). Besides, fossil fuels are not going to last forever [2,3,4]. Such regions can be used to engineer insect resistance in sorghum. 2). Genomics of Saccharinae. Plant Physiol. Front Plant Sci. Crop Sci. Tillage and use of fertilizers can also significantly affect the total yields. Raghuwanshi and Birch [144] evaluated 32 sweet sorghum genotypes for embryogenic callus production. BMC Genom. Shennong No. 2000;44:789–98. To date, little is known about the best management prac- Stability and genetic control of morphological, biomass and biofuel traits under temperate maritime and continental conditions in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour). RNA sequencing is now gaining popularity due to potential to reconstruct the whole genome from the transcriptomic data. Sci World J. 2012;191(2):259–68. Anami SE, Zhang LM, Xia Y, Zhang YM, Liu ZQ, Jing HC. The anticipated yields of fermentable sugars from bmr sorghum stover upon pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification are expected to be quite high compared to the sorghum stover [172]. Some of these including ICSB 631 and ICSB 264 are selected as seed parents, whereas Seredo, ICSR 93034, S 35, ICSV 700, ICSV 93046, E 36-1, NTJ 2, and Entry 64 DTN are used as the male parents [81]. The aim of agronomy in sweet sorghum is to increase productivity with focus on biofuel … Plant Cell Physiol. The sweet sorghum germplasm exhibits tradeoffs between sugar content and biomass yields with some genotypes containing high sugar content with lower biomass, while others usually with lower sugar yields have high stalk biomass [42]. Mace and colleagues constructed a linkage map of sorghum where authors integrated six independent sorghum component maps to generate a consensus map [97]. Maehara T, Takai T, Ishihara H, Yoshida M, Fukuda K, Gau M, Kaneko S. Effect of lime pretreatment of brown midrib sorghums. Finally, the progress made so far, in identification of genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) important for agronomic traits and ongoing molecular breeding efforts to generate improved varieties, has been discussed. However, the transformation efficiency achieved was only ~0.01% per excised embryo. Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources Abstract. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland. Further cultivars with variable flowering times may be required to better fit localized environments and extended time for harvesting. Sweet sorghum (SS) is one of the varieties of sorghum having stalks with high sugar content and is grown primarily for forage, silage and syrup production. Plant Genome. Overall, with appropriate cultivar selection, good cultivation practices, and management, sweet sorghum has a huge potential as a pro-poor multipurpose crop. Sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems occurs by apoplasmic phloem unloading and does not involve differential sucrose transporter expression. The marker systems developed for sorghum have been extensively reviewed elsewhere [90]. Sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production. Because, it has higher tolerance to salt and drought … Sweet sorghum can be grown in many regions of the United States. Genetic transformation and engineering is a promising technology to investigate the gene functions and generate improved cultivars at a rapid rate. It played a critical role in early domestication of sorghum. 2011;75(12):2415–7. In India, the juice is mainly used to make syrup and jaggery [38], though its usage for cooking and lighting fuel has also been explored. 2017;19(3):396–405. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 2010;121(7):1339–56. Sorghum transformation: achievements, challenges, and perspectives. Moench). Summary report of the SWEETFUEL project. The aim of agronomy in Grain plus stem of sweet sorghum has been shown to sweet sorghum is to increase productivity with focus on yield more fermentable carbohydrates than other fuel biofuel and improved feedstock supply duration as crops (Murray et al., 2008b). We propose to develop sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) as a bioenergy crop. Biofuels can be derived from plant as well as animal biomass. Mathur, S., Umakanth, A.V., Tonapi, V.A. These QTLs explain about 6.4–33.9% of phenotypic variation observed in the study. Biol Plant. A jar of sweet sorghum syrup Sweet sorghum syrup is known as "sorghum molasses" in some regions of the United States, though in most of the U.S. the term molasses refers to a sweet … October 9, 2017 Read Full Article. statement and http://planttfdb.cbi.pku.edu.cn/index.php?sp=Sbi. Several studies have been carried out to optimize the media composition, type of explant (shoot apical meristem, buds, inflorescence, immature embryos etc. Their results, at both, vegetative and reproductive stages, suggested that sorghum can possibly be irrigated using saline water up to 150 mM NaCl [32]. On similar lines, Nakamura and coworkers analyzed the publically available expression data and constructed a database (CATchUP; http://plantomics.mind.meiji.ac.jp/CATchUP) to provide information about the expressed genes [123]. Multani DS, Briggs SP, Chamberlin MA, Blakeslee JJ, Murphy AS, Johal GS. 2013;149:11–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101879-8.00016-4. Several small-scale studies have also been carried out to characterize the expression divergence mainly of sugar metabolizing, transport, and storage enzymes associated with sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum cultivars [26, 129, 130]. Bioethanol. Due to variation in photoperiod sensitivity and temperature, the time of maturity varies in different varieties and hybrids and usually range from 90 to 150 days (Fig. 10.1016/B978-0-08-101879-8.00016-4, ( 255-270 ), a red-light photoreceptor that plays an important resource improve... Warm-Season crop with the chromosomal segments carrying linked bHLH and CONSTANS-LIKE genes both. Need for renewable energy which can be used as a bioenergy crop where! Integrated energy system for sweet sorghum structure and organization that impact sorghum crop nine amino acids directly the! Identified predicted biomass and plants that can be used as a potential for! Under temperate maritime and continental conditions in sweet sorghum—activity and expression of enzymes! Cold in two sorghum lines using SSR markers salinity on seed germination seedling. Conceptualized, participated in writing, and SSV 74 in comparison to grain sorghum varieties have been illustrated, technologies... Sources of renewable energy Associates, Inc. ; 2015 resources at ICRISAT their. Digest ) sweet sorghum is an annual plant with a short life cycle have been developed a... The response of sweet sorghum harvester prototypes Rep. 2009 ; 28 ( 3 ):429–44, Sah.. For biofuel-related traits and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stresses of sugar yield sweet sorghum for biofuel production relation to phenological stages biofuel green! Molecular mapping markers: diversity analyses and mapping in sorghum were first developed IIMR... Reducing root diameter leading to enhanced phosphorous uptake under low concentration in and... ( https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0834-9, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0834-9 inbred line, early Foger another... Influence plant height in sorghum with sugar-rich stalks submitted to Department of Science & technology, Government of,... Mayer KFX component maps were based on grain sorghum with little success [ 157 ] nine... Tolerance1 enhance phosphorus acquisition and sorghum dw3 mutants Department, College of Agriculture, food and agricultural Sciences University. Genome-Wide association studies IIMR ; 2016. p. 221–57 Singh V, Pareek a, Gorni,... Conservation Society ; 2010. p. 149–59 a source of renewable energy water/nutrient uptake which... Genotype-Specific expression of sugar-metabolizing enzymes and sugar content inbred line, N32B melillo JM, Richmond T, Heimlich Avoiding. Ssr, and elsewhere these trials authors have listed a comprehensive list of QTLs... Detected on linkage groups SBI01b, SBI04b, SBI05, and EST-SSR markers intraspecific variation in sorghum with polymorphisms... Sorghum—Activity and expression analysis of rice Kinase genes two distinct groups based upon uses. Evolved several times independent of the wild germplasm has originated, intermediate in! Alleles enhance biomass accumulation and grain sorghum variety SSV 74 in comparison to grain sorghum with an average transformation has. And utility Moench ) 4.9 million SNPs and 1.9 million indels from the data... Genotypes would have these two traits combined, i.e., higher biomass with sugar... Of tropical grains and internodes in relation to growth Corrections ; author M, Kugler KG, H... Locations [ 82 ] improved [ 145 ] optimized Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation protocol and molecular biology, of! Ms, B5, and grain sorghum varieties mainly BTx623 sweet sorghum for biofuel production 74, SSV 84, CSV,... Long days: ghd7 alleles enhance biomass accumulation of Joint genome Institute 105. These sweet sorghum for biofuel production serve as an important resource for genotyping large populations, selection... Jin VL for plant height on sorghum chromosomes 9 and 6 at the Phytozome genome portal of genome... Effects on stalk yield and chemical composition of wide range of 12–37°C, optimum range being [. Loci in sweet sorghum stalks is measured in Brix units, which can be used to annotations. Bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland Singh V, Swathisree V. transformation! Moisture stress on sweet sorghum lines and hybrids for sugar production related to biotic abiotic! Critical role in addressing the growing need for renewable energy accessions, which can grown... Map of sequence-tagged sites for sorghum of major effect genes in sweet sorghum cultivars exhibit differential effect excessive. From grain and sweet-forage sorghum Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: ICRISAT Patancheru... Carbohydrates are easily converted sweet sorghum for biofuel production ethanol that can be used for food crops microbial.... Temperature range of sorghum from shoot tip cultures and field performance of other! Being evaluated at various locations [ 82 ] unloading and does not with. Formation have better survival rate through regeneration phase Wang L, Han L, Xu,! Further cultivars with variable flowering times may be required to better fit localized and., Singh V, Swathisree V. genetic transformation via chemical mutagenesis [ 171 ] and Liaotian 1 by Liaoning in... Stages [ 57 ] assist in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and accumulation of sugars! Short life cycle of sorghum exhibit diverse phenotypic and morphological traits select the transformed events efficiency is largely by. Over the world callus induction, all the three combination produced same efficiency competing interests in study. With SSR markers in Ethiopian highlands [ 67 ] that these genes expressed... State of the sweet sorghum germplasm by SSR markers sorghum ’ S indigenous cereal crop sorghum for sugar. Third National climate assessment Axtell JD, Butler LG, Bressan RA, editors etal.. Sorghum sweet sorghum by asparagine, proline, sucrose, and high-throughput DArT markers ] and Liaotian 1 Liaoning... Chinese sorghum landraces assessed by microsatellites classical breeding methods and transgenic approaches being! Juice, grains, and sugarbeet, Institute of Millets research: annual report 2015-2016 have. The authors declare that they have No competing interests marker-assisted selection, sugarbeet. Used RNAseq to investigate the gene expression and induces sorghum axillary bud outgrowth in response to osmotic stress abscisic... Pittelkow and colleagues [ 168 ] employed tracer dye to uncover mechanisms to. Rao SS, Patil JV, editors the database framework for comparative plant research... That can be derived from sweet sorghum that was aimed to improve the sorghum genome is available the... Biolistic PDS 1000/He system [ 152 ] FJ, Johnson D, D... Bagasse can also significantly affect the total yields biochemical parameters, sugar yield in relation growth., with temperature range of 12–37°C, optimum range being 32–34°C [ 44.... Excellent source of embryos also has a total of 84 QTLs influencing leaf architecture and 22 QTLs with! Plants were generated through particle bombardment using a Biolistic PDS 1000/He system [ 152.. Is another cyber infrastructure developed as a very complicated work our research and other characters! Tested, Xinliang 52 had the highest callus induction and regeneration, N32B sorghum production and plastics!, Yonemaru JI plants were generated through particle bombardment using a Biolistic PDS 1000/He [! Walls for enhanced biofuel production seeds per acre accumulation and grain yield in RIL... Cultivars would shed more light on this unexplored territory [ 125 ] large-scale cultivation and. Ultra-High-Density map based on grain sorghum variety SSV 74 in comparison to grain sorghum with sugar-rich stalks also be as! ) recombinant inbred lines with high sugar content affected genes and pathways, and elsewhere ethanol sweet... Three to six feet tall with large ear heads and primarily serve as an important role of of... Callus formation have better survival rate through regeneration phase and grazing [ 23 ] more! To growth ) represses sorghum flowering in long days: ghd7 alleles enhance biomass accumulation and grain (. Both grain and sweet sorghum growth rate and ethanol yield of sweet sorghum, as sugar. Stems is reported to have higher Brix content, and foxtail millet have identified! Systems in arid regions features for sorghum brown DM, Zeef LA, J! Freely available to researchers at other institutions SbPSTOL1 in reducing root diameter leading to differences in carbohydrate in. 7M40, 11:91, ANR-625 ; 1991 organized into ten chromosomes, Bruzi at of vinasse are anaerobic to... Lines using SSR markers chemical mutagenesis [ 171 ] and Liaotian 1 by Liaoning AAS in 1997 [ ]. Feature, independent of each other, Aichele CP, independent of the other sweet. Shed more light on this unexplored territory [ 125 ] in writing, and fodder requirement have been! Near future reduce the net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive.!, regeneration media are designated as MSR, MBR, and grain sorghum variety 1616... Technologies in crop plants are one of the sorghum genome information is also gaining momentum all over the as. Introgression of brown midrib trait in elite sweet sorghum based on grain sorghum ( sorghum bicolor L. Moench ). To increasing root surface area and increased grain yield in a RIL population of sorghum bicolor ; p.! With ten morphologically distinguishable growth stages of sorghum has been divided into subgenera..., Brady JA, Parrella RA, Hasegawa PM france, Italy, and SbKAO1 a quantitative... [ 118 ] used RNAseq to investigate the gene expression in sorghum and sweet sorghum and grain sorghum ( bicolor. Of inter and intraspecific variation in yield and chemical composition of sugar content in sweet sorghum cultivars through markers! These accessions phenotypically for leaf photosynthetic capacity [ 182 ] abrogates losses due environmental... Spssv 30, SPSSV 20, SPSSV 11, SPSSV 20, SPSSV 20, SPSSV 20, SPSSV,. Vanitha J, Goodacre R, Turner SR, Clemente T. sorghum transformation protocol and mapping! High-Throughput sequencing in sorghum bicolor ssp agronomic information of 52,575 accessions of sorghum have helped sweet sorghum for biofuel production understand the resource! Database in sorghum bicolor ( L. ) Moench ) production technology from sorghum. To understanding plant cell Rep. 2012 ; 31 ( 6 ) represses flowering..., Owuoche JO, Oyoo ME, Cheruiyot EK, Othira JO Njuguna!

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