ruby mining in myanmar

A short report on the operations of the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. It comes under the same umbrella as his parent's company, popular Myanmar … The Rubies of Burma: A Review of the Mogok Stone Tract, P.C. 544-554, (1957). A historical study of the British conquest of Burma in the late 1880s. 13, No. The most recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar is in Namya (Namyazeik) located in the northern state of Kachin. 5, pp. Most famous is the Mogok Stone Tract, which has remained the world's premier source of ruby … Period of the second lease, generally profitable (except 1897–98 and 1903) (Brown, 1927). 3-31, (1957). 5, No. 22, pp. 724, pp. 2, p. 970, (1892). 19, No. The author reports that 334,535 carats of rubies were exported from the Mogok area to Great Britain in 1907. All other color varieties of gem-quality corundum are referred to as sapphire. Natural, untreated Mogok rubies of fine colour can be valued at $80,000 per carat, according to the Myanmar Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.S. 139-154 and the Asiatic Quarterly Review, Vol. Gem Hunting in Burma, V.B. Keller, "Gemstones and Their Origins," pp. This complex geology consists mainly of metamorphic schist, gneiss and marble (ruby and spinel-bearing) along with igneous intrusions (granite, pegmatite, syenite, leucogranite) and skarn. 14, pp. 127, No. 151-228, (1896). 37, No. 11, No. A Visit to the Gem Districts of Ceylon and Burma, F.D. A three-part account of gem mining in Burma was prepared by a well-known mineral and gem dealer. 102, No. Kunz (1915) mentions a Burmese legend from the ruby mines: According to this legend, in the first century of our era three eggs were laid by a female naga, or serpent; out of the first was born Pyusawti, a king of Pagan; out of the second came an Emperor of China, and out of the third were emitted the rubies of the Ruby Mines. 8, No. 15, No. A short discussion of the ruby mining operations around Mogok is presented. 367-373, (1932). Myanmar reportedly produces more than 80% of the world’s rubies, but thanks to decades of isolation under the former junta and restrictions on access for foreigners to mining areas like Mogok, the trade remains opaque and mired in controversy. 7, pp. 90% of the world’s rubies come from Myanmar and … 15-25, (1905). Ueber das Vorkommen der Rubine in Birma [On the Occurrence of Ruby in Burma], M. Bauer, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, No. The following article is reprinted by kind permission of Gems & Gemology, in which the original appeared, Spring 1957 (Volume IX, Number 1). A summary is given of a presentation made by the author on the history and status of the ruby tract around Mogok. A description is given of the Mogok district and the ruby mining operations. The author describes the location, geologic setting and mining of ruby in the Mogok Stone Tract, and he summarizes the gemological features of Mogok ruby. Apart from its world-renowned rubies, Myanmar has produced several other interesting gemstone materials. The rubies from Myanmar come from two major sources: the legendary Mogôk Valley–located some 400 miles north of Myanmar’s capital Yangon, and Möng Hsu–located in Myanmar’s Shan State, bordering China, Laos, and Thailand. While the government has not allowed for foreign investment into jade and ruby mine, with right investment environment Myanmar has the potential to attract large scale foreign participation in the exploration and extraction of metals, ores and industrial minerals, especially copper, tin, tungsten, nickel and gold. A historical study of the acquisition of the legendary ruby mines by British investors in the late 1880s. Many of the rubies found at the Montepuez mine have similar qualities to that of the well-known Burmese ruby. 1, pp. 1, No. The author of this book provides a historical account of the Mogok Stone Tract and a detailed description of ruby from Myanmar. Gem Mining in Burma. Some of these have a rich red hue … After the British annexed Burma in 1886, Mogôk’s mines were operated by a foreign enterprise known as The Burma Ruby Mines Company. 38, No. A popular account (including photographs) is given of the ruby mining operations in the vicinity of Mogok. The Great Corundums - Part II: The Pigeon-Blood Rubies of Burma, D.S.M. 11, pp. 7, p. 187, (1900). Although the discovery of rubies in the Mogôk Valley is shrouded in myth, experts believe that the area has been mined for at least a millennium. 8, No. The owner of the SP Bakery, a well-known chain of snack stores, has been captured by unidentified armed men in the ruby mining town of Mogok, where hundreds have taken shelter following recent fighting in nearby villages. 3, pp. The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.S. The author presents a detailed description of the history, geologic setting, and mining of ruby and other gem minerals in the region around Mogok. Burrowing deep underground, thousands of informal miners risk their lives to find gleaming red gems as a law change spurs opportunity in Myanmar's “land of rubies”. Gübelin, A.A. Levinson, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. Burmese rubies are associated with quality because of their intense color, perfect quantities of silk, and strong fluorescence . Search GIA's library catalog of 57,000 books, 1,800 videos, 700 periodicals, and the renowned Cartier Rare Book Repository and Archive. Mine workers dig at the ruby mine site in Mogok, about 200 kilometres north of Mandalay. 24, pp. 329-340, (1933). 37, No. 6, pp. The Mogok Stone Tract is, however, also an important source of other gemstones such as sapphire, spinel, peridot, spessartine, zircon, topaz and many others. A Geographical Classification of the Mineral Deposits of Burma, J.C. Brown, Records of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. A brief description of the ruby and sapphire gem mines near Mo-gat (Mogok) and Kyat-pyan that were five days journey from Ava (near present-day Mandalay). The Mogok area, along with other parts of the country, came under control of the British in late 1886, when investigations of the geological setting of the ruby occurrence began and gem mining became more organized. This article presents a detailed description of the geologic setting and ruby mining operations in the Mogok region. 66, No. Particularly fine specimens of spinel have emerged from Myanmar. Small-scale mining continues, but it is slow and expensive, and ruby production throughout the country has gradually declined. A popular account of a visit to the Mogok Stone Tract in the late 1800s. years,” he said. Official exports of rubies from the country are valued at over $87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more. 5, pp. 216-220, (1887). “The current ruby mining areas are rather exhausted, as we have been digging them for severa! 261-275, (1888). 335–342 and No. Ruby Dragon Mining Division is fully committed to having a sustainable mining operation by reducing the environmental footprints; to having a good governance of natural resources in order to establish a long-lasting relationships with the local people; and to work with integrity in making sure that the safety of every staff is the priority on site. Fact Myanmar's Ruby Gems Mining. 359-370, (1827). Similar reports published by the author in the same year can be found in Murray's Magazine, Vol. 90% of the world’s rubies come from Mogok including the much-coveted “pigeon blood” ruby. R.C. Burma: An Important Source of Precious and Semi-precious Stones, A.B. Artisanal Ruby Mining in Myanmar: Environmental and Social Impacts Sally Dickinson DeLeon, Summer 2007 This report was prepared as part of a master’s thesis on gemstone jewelry supply chains and their relationship to artisanal and small-scale miners. A short report on the operations of the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. A chapter of this book on gem deposits is devoted to a description of the ruby mines near Mogok. 50, No. Taw Sein Ko, as tol… 8, pp. The mines in the area called the Mogok Stone Tract in north-central Burma have been known to produce the most important rubies, and reports of rubies from this area have been made by explorers and other travelers since the time of Marco Polo. The author provides general information on the mines near Mogok and the local industry involved with manufacturing rubies as gemstones. 7-12, pp. Adams, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, No. This article describes the Mogok area and the occurrence and mining of ruby and sapphire. Myanmar produces some of the finest rubies, sapphire and jade in the world. Judd, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A, Vol. 17, No. Sri Lanka . It has significant reserves of metallic minerals (such as gold, copper, and Among other characteristics, they are usually color zoned . The Ruby Mines of Upper Burma: A Short History of their Working, The Gemmologist, Vol. The very best color in Myanmar rubies is sometimes described as “pigeon’s blood.” In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the 1990s and rapidly became the world’s main ruby mining area. A discussion is presented of Burma as a source of gem materials. The Geology and Gem-stones of the Mogok Stone Tract, Burma, L.A.N. All rights reserved. A summary of a public lecture that provides a description of the topography of the Mogok Stone Tract, the various methods of gem mining used by the local people, and of the ethnic groups that inhabit the area. 2, No. Some dealers refer to top quality rubies as “Burmese” regardless of where they were mined, although this practice is frowned upon. Mining is carried out in open pits and underground tunnels. Several photos of the ruby mines are shown in this publication. Ruby Mining in Burmah, Author unknown, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. Long-term residents of Myanmar’s ruby mining centre will be offered licences to mine for the precious stones, according to the Mandalay Region minister for forestry and mining, U Than Soe Myint. 111, pp. Adams and R.P.D. Often referred to as the ‘Mogok Stone Tract’ (La Touche 1913; Fermor 1931; Chhibber 1934; Iyer 1953), this gem-rich area is located within the central part of the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. 445-448, (1922). 280-286). A brief description of ruby mining around Mogok is presented. Following the 1885 Third Anglo-Burmese War in which the British conquered and annexed the hitherto independent Upper Burma, in 1886 the British launched a military expedition to "open up" the ruby mines at Mogok and make them available to the British. 95, pp. 1-7, (1915). “The ruby mines are getting deeper and deeper, so now we must use 20 men for the work that formerly 10 men could do,” said Dr U Kyaw Khine, the director of the Kyaw Win Tun Gem Company. Richard T. Liddicoat Gemological Library and Information Center 4, No. 3, pp. 4, pp. By Martin Ehrmann, C.G. Fitz-Gerald, Technical World Magazine, Vol. 1, pp. However, the mining industry fuels the country's controversial military, raising concerns about the ethical value of its gemstones The Graff Ruby is from the Mogok mine in Myanmar. 358-366, (1905). 246-250, (1824). 4, pp. 9, No. 109, pp. 1, pp. These two articles are a summary of an American Consular Report on the ruby mines near Mogok. 20, pp. «Under the Union’s gemstone law, a medium-scale mine is defined as covering two hectares (five acres), while small is defined as 1.2 hectares. The ruby crystals and fragments are often sold in markets in Mogok and Kyatpyin. 636-653 and No. The author describes traveling from Mandalay to Mogok, and the methods used there to recover gem ruby from alluvial sediment deposits. On the Ruby Mines near Mogok, Burma, R. Gordon, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Vol. … It … Ruby Mines District, E.C.S. A historical study of the efforts of a British explorer to bring the Burma ruby mines into the British Empire in the late 1880s by building a railway. 66, pp. 58, No. 2243, pp. (Photo by Ye Aung Thu/AFP Photo) This photo taken … 56, Pt. 23, p. 636 (1890). © 2019 The Natural Ruby Company. 1-142, (1915). MOGOK, Myanmar -- When the world hears about Mogok, it usually concerns some hefty ruby unearthed in the region and auctioned for millions of dollars -- … The Burma Ruby-Mines, Author unknown, Chambers’s Journal, Vol. There isn’t a great deal of fine quality rubies coming out of Burma right now. Natural, untreated Mogok rubies of fine colour can be valued at $80,000 per carat, according to the Myanmar Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. However, recent movements by the Myanmar military against the Rohingya ethnic group of Muslims to expel them from the country has turned violent. Some dealers refer to top quality rubies as “Burmese” regardless of where they were mined, although this practice is frowned upon. 152-174, (1992). A description is given of the simple mining methods used to recover ruby from near-surface rocks in the Mogok area. 209-219, (1983). A booklet that provides a description of the history, topography, agriculture and economy of the Mogok district. The Burma Ruby Mining Company, Author unknown, The Economist, Vol. Ruby Mines of the Mogok Valley, Burma, Author unknown, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. 66, pp. 125-133, (1913). 263-272, (1932) and Methods of Ruby Mining in Burma,  The Gemmologist, Vol. 1, pp. The exact date when rubies were first discovered in Mogok is unknown. 1-8, (1902). Bird, "Wanderings in Burma," pp. Gemstones Formed by Low-Pressure Regional Metamorphism: The Ruby Deposits of Mogok, Burma, P.C. 61, No. The authors describe the minerals found in the Mogok gem deposits, including chrysoberyl, sillimanite, nepheline, sodalite, forsterite, lepidolite, muscovite, topaz and cassiterite. The Ruby Mines of Burma, G.W. The area was annexed by the British in 1866, who granted sole rights to mine the area to Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. 442-454, and No. 12, pp. A mineralogical description is given of minerals from the ruby occurrences in Burma. Montepuez is a very young operation and with a very different level of safety risk when compared to Kagem. Because of this, mining in the Mogok area has become increasingly difficult. Fax: +1 760 603 4256, Historical Reading: The Koh-i-noor Diamond, Historical Reading List: Pearls from India and Sri Lanka, Historical Reading List: The California Gold Rush, Historical Reading List: The Ancient Emerald Mines of Egypt. 7, pp. The latter also occur in secondary sedimentary deposits mainly along the valley floors. An early description of the location of the ruby mines, accompanied by a simple map. 2976, pp. Add to this the protracted US embargo on goods from Myanmar and it is easy to understand why gem … The authors review the complicated geological setting of the Mogok gem deposits. d’Amato, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. Fact Myanmar's Ruby Gems Mining. The list is presented in chronological order to emphasize the development of ideas over time. Safety . Myanmar is the only source of Jadeite Jade and the only source of Imperial Jadeite in the world. 26, No. 9, pp. A report of a trip to the gem-mining areas of the country is provided by the author. Many nations have imposed strict sanctions on the country since then, and any reversal of the Jade Act seems highly unlikely. Rubies from Mogok in Myanmar (Burma) have been prized throughout history. The country accounts for most of global jade and ruby production. Dr. James Shigley is a distinguished research fellow at the Gemological Institute of America in Carlsbad, California. 167, pp. Meen, Lapidary Journal, Vol. Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, has been a key producer of outstanding rubies for centuries. 10, No. Most Burmese rubies come from the districts surrounding Mogok and Mong Hsu, regions in the north and north-east of Burma respectively. 306-318, No. Conquest and Concession: The Case of the Burma Ruby Mines, R.V. 15, pp. Der Rubinbergbau Birmas [Burmese ruby mining], G. Eisfelder, Berg- und Huettenmaennische Zeitung, Vol. 70, No. Business and Empire: A Reassessment of the British Conquest of Burma in 1885, A. Webster, The Historical Journal, Vol. The Ruby Mines of Upper Burma, Mrs. H.C. Paget, Cornhill Magazine, Vol. The Ruby Mines, J.G. “Gems and Mines of Mogok,” T. Themelis, 352 pp., (2008). 6, pp. 3-6 and No. 161-175, (1897). By closing this banner or using this site you agree to our revised Privacy Notice, Terms of Service and Cookie Policy. 99, No. 10-25, (1828). 3, pp. 187-190, (1873). 410-423 (the latter reprinted in Littell’s Living Age, Vol.67, No. This article presents a geologic description of the gem deposits near Mogok. Stokes, "Mines and Minerals of the British Empire," pp. 335-342, (1956). 1, Chap. Historically, gems have been extracted from alluvial fields, limestone caves, open trenches in hillsides, and tunnels in host rock. The authors of this article give the first detailed geological description of the occurrence of rubies and other minerals in Upper Burma. A book that presents summaries of the mining operations for various minerals and ores, and includes a chapter on the ruby mines of Burma that describes the history of the area and the mining methods used to locate rubies. Cowan, Mining and Scientific Press, Vol. It also reviews efforts made to pacify the countryside and its people. 4, pp. These mines were famous for producing about 90 percent of all pigeon blood rubies. 2651, pp. Hughes, RWH Publishing, Boulder, Colorado, (1997). Fitz-Gerald, Technical World Magazine, Vol. Myanmar’s mining sector is closely linked to its evolving economy and shifting political landscape. All Rights Reserved. Gübelin, Revue de Gemmologie a.f.g., No. Mogok and other villages in the region have been famous since ancient times for their precious gem stones. 8, pp. RUBY MINING IN BURMA (MYANMAR) : Corundum has been found in a number of different areas of Burma. GIA World Headquarters 38, No. After Burma Ruby Mines Ltd. departed the region, local mining went back to its former small-scale methods. Do not take Coon Creek Road, Flowers Gap Road, or Ruby Knoll Road.. 22, pp. There are records of mining Burmese rubies that go back over 5 centuries. A book that presents summaries of the mining operations for various minerals and ores, and includes a chapter on the ruby mines of Burma that describes the history of the area and the mining methods used to locate rubies. A description of traveling to Mogok to visit the ruby mines is presented, along with a discussion of distinguishing ruby from synthetic and imitation materials and the difficulties of the mining operations.   The Upper Burma Ruby Regulation of 1887, U.T. These mines were famous for producing about 90 percent of all pigeon blood rubies. Mogok residents to receive ruby mining licences. 1897–1904. The Burma Ruby Mines, A. Williams, “The Romance of Mining,” Chap. Duarte, Jewelers' Circular Weekly, Vol. The group has already conducted a field study and met with people in Mogok, the heart of ruby mining in Myanmar, said U Tin Aung, head of the committee and Chan Mya Tharsi Township Regional MP. Although not as productive as large-scale production, they proved to be more cost-effective and sustainable. 26-31, (1908). 812-824, (1901). Halford-Watkins  describe the setting of the Mogok gem mines and the operations used to recover rubies. 5, pp. This article gives a popular account of the ruby mines and market at Mogok. In May 2012, after the parliamentary election of. Myanmar has diverse and largely untapped geological resources which will make mining a significant driver of the country’s economic development in the years to come. Most famous is the Mogok Stone Tract, which has remained the world's … 3, (July-September), pp. The Ruby Mines of Burma, T.T. 143-149, (1999). “The ruby mines are getting deeper and deeper, so now we must use 20 men for the work that formerly 10 men could do,” said Dr U Kyaw Khine, the director of the Kyaw Win Tun Gem Company. The Ruby Mines of Burma, D.H. Howell, Gems & Gemology, Vol. The color comes from traces of chromium. Gübelin, Journal of Gemmology, Vol. Rubies from Möng Hsu differ in several key respects from Mogôk stones. 99, No. These two articles by J.F. No doubt the first humans to settle the area found rubies and spinels in the rivers and streams. All rights reserved. This photo taken on May 16, 2019 shows miners arriving with equipment on motorcycles at a ruby mining site in Mogok, north of Mandalay. The Burma Ruby Mines, Author unknown, Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 187, No. A two-part article that describes the ruby mining around Mogok based on a visit by the author. The very best color in Myanmar rubies is sometimes described as “pigeon’s blood.” In central Myanmar, the area of Mong Hsu began producing rubies during the 1990s and rapidly became the world’s main ruby mining area. 5345 Armada Drive The Ruby Mines of Burma, J. Merriman, The Wide World Magazine, Vol. GIA is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization. 2, pp. “Ruby and Sapphire,” R.W. 43, No. Gübelin, Lapis, Vol. Simpson, Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, Vol. Birmas [ Burmese ruby in recent years, considerable movement has been made towards democracy in Burma learn about... Geological Survey of India, Vol, R. Gordon, Proceedings of the Mogok Stone Tract has produced other... 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Of outstanding rubies for centuries Scientific Observations of the some interesting gemological information that has often been or! – a Mogok Geology Primer, W. Atichat and R.W ( formerly Burma ) have been from. ’ s greatest suppliers of, rubies several key respects from Mogôk stones for Burmese rubies has for., Vol.67, No Working, the wide world Magazine, Vol includes discussion... A trip to the Kingdom of Ava, Author unknown, the United States lifted numerous economic sanctions Burma! Emeralds, almost all rubies have some type of imperfection, which was traditionally where the world pits. Recover ruby from Myanmar `` Mines and Minerals of the Royal Society of Arts Vol... The Home of the marketplace in Mogok where rubies are best in libraries, including the T.! A key producer of outstanding rubies for centuries was prepared by a simple.. ( 1932 ) and methods of ruby and other villages in the Lapidary Journal Vol! And methods of ruby and sapphire Mines gem dealer prized for their purity and.... Kingdom of Ava, Author unknown, Appleton 's Booklover 's Magazine, Vol simple Map, as well the! A thing of the Canadian Institute of mining, ” T. Themelis, pp.. Rubies have some type of imperfection, which is where the term `` Burmese ruby around. In host rock ’ s holdings and on-site access, please contact GIA! Generally profitable ( except 1897–98 and 1903 ) ( 3 ) organization photographs is. A description is given of the country narrative of the British control over ruby and sapphire Mines to. Election of Review of the Jade act seems highly unlikely, L. Claremont, Knowledge – a Monthly of... Deal of fine quality rubies coming out of Burma, R. Gordon, Proceedings of British! T a Great deal of fine quality rubies as gemstones geological setting of the 's! Although this practice is frowned upon book provides a historical study of the legendary ruby near. 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Virtually depleted, sending the price of prized Burmese rubies come from the ruby,. Gradually declined Mrs. H.C. Paget, Cornhill Magazine, Vol fragments are often sold in in! Geology Today, these Mines were famous for producing about 90 percent of all pigeon rubies. And economy of the second lease, with a comment of how to distinguish ruby from Myanmar,.... Of this, mining in Burma der Rubinbergbau Birmas [ Burmese ruby mining around Mogok is.... Gem materials and Minerals of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol provides a historical study of the British in. Red when heat Treatments are applied RWH Publishing, Boulder, Colorado, ( 1932 and!, sending the price of prized Burmese rubies sky high, G.L one of the finest,..., J.C. Brown, 1927 ) secondary sedimentary deposits mainly along the Valley.... From Mogok in Myanmar, bordering China with quality ruby mining in myanmar of this book contains a description! For a modest fee locals were free to mine 1885, A. Webster, Gemmologist! Of Science, Vol 1-34, ( 2008 ) give the first detailed geological description of ruby... And Jade in the north and north-east of Burma, L.A.N the mineral resources the... The Möng Hsu differ in several key respects from Mogôk stones out of respectively. Same year can be found in libraries, including the much-coveted “ pigeon blood rubies which came under control the! Highly unlikely a billion dollars local industry involved with manufacturing rubies as “ Burmese regardless. The Author provides general information on the operations of the world these include Sagyin,,... Montepuez mine have similar qualities to that of the country is ruby mining in myanmar by famous... And Cookie Policy Mogok came under control of the Royal Society of Bengal, Vol by British investors the... And Kyatpyin to items imported before the act pacify the countryside and its.. Country are valued at over $ 87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more of! On-Site access, please contact the GIA library in Carlsbad were closed local industry involved with manufacturing as! Many nations have imposed strict sanctions on the ruby deposits of Burma, F.D ( 2008 ), China. Shifting political landscape a Map of Koshanpri, F. Hamilton, Edinburgh Journal of the Mogok Stone Tract in north. Creek Road, Flowers Gap Road, or ruby Knoll Road notes on a visit to the Burmese, H.C.... Bordering China provided by the famous Swiss gemologist describe the setting of the location the... Give the first detailed geological description of the Mogok Stone Tract in the Annual report of a trip the! The well-known Burmese ruby '' comes from and fragments are often sold markets. Home of the Mogok Stone Tract and a detailed description of the Royal Society of a! Pomegranate, ” T. Themelis, 352 pp., ( 1997 ) Mines departed! Brief description of the some interesting gemological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked G.,..., records of mining, ” for the fruit growing abundantly in these hills the legendary ruby Mines Ltd ``... Mogok came under control of the Smithsonian Institution ( for 1926 ), and how were!, Engineering and mining of rubies, as tol… after Burma ruby Mines, A. Webster the. The fruit growing abundantly in these hills, Thabeitkyin, Naniazeik, came. To medium dark-red color tone in a ruby mining Company, Author unknown Journal. Some interesting gemological information that has often been forgotten or overlooked any reversal of occurrence! Recently found ruby deposit in Myanmar, including the Richard T. Liddicoat gemological library Review the complicated geological of... Exact date when rubies were bought and sold at the Montepuez mine have similar to... Were closed production throughout the country are valued at over $ 87.4 million while the undocumented are. Are valued at over $ 87.4 million while the undocumented exports are possibly more are vast proven reserves of of. Mogok—One of the geological setting of the British control in the Lapidary Journal, Vol ” Chap Mines near.! The Canadian Institute of America in Carlsbad, California Kashmir there are also lapis lazuli and peridot Mines 1969... Sediment deposits, a military coup destabilized Burma, F.D a trip to the Mogok Stone Tract,,... Author on the operations used to recover gem ruby from alluvial fields, limestone caves, trenches! Their Origins, '' pp and Minerals of Upper Burma mining around Mogok pigeon blood rubies to... Stokes, `` Gazetteer of Upper Burma, D.H. Howell, Gems have been extracted from alluvial deposits!

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