pin photodiode working principle

The separation distance between p region and n region in PIN photodiode is very large because of the wide depletion width. Photodiodes’ quantum efficiency is extremely high. DETECTOR: A detector is one which converts photons into electrons. This keeps the depletion layer free of any carriers and normally no current will flow. Though, solar cell works only in bright light. High quantum efficiency requires the control of reflections apart from a high inner efficiency like an anti-reflection coating. This diode is very complex to light so when light falls on the diode it easily changes light into an electric current. Photo Diode2. The first developed type of photodiode is the PN type. The solar cell is also branded as a large-area photodiode because it converts solar energy into electric energy. PIN photodiode is a kind of photo detector, it can convert optical signals into electrical signals. Generally, when a light is made to illuminate the PN junction, covalent bonds are ionized. $\Rightarrow$ The responsivity of p–i–n photodiodes is limited while Avalanche photodiode (APDs) can have much larger values of R. $\Rightarrow$ Working of APD $\Rightarrow$ APD is similar to PIN diode the exception is the addition of high intensity electric field region. This mechanism is also called as the inner photoelectric effect. Its construction is similar to the normal PN junction diode but the working principle differs from it. It comprises optical filters, built-in lenses, and also surface areas. & the active surface can be covered through the material of anti-reflection so that the energy of light cannot lose and the highest of it can be changed into the current. Here is how an IR sensor works. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Likewise the N-region has been doped to hold excess electrons. The PIN photodiode that works in reverse bias can introduce a noise current to decrease S/N ratio For the applications of high dynamic range, the reverse biasing will give good performance For high BW applications, reverse biasing will provide good performance like the capacitance among the regions of P & N and the storage of charge capacity is small. On an active surface, the light rays can strike over it whereas, on a non-active surface, the light rays cannot strike. The entire current through the diode is the sum of the absence of light and the photocurrent. The photodetection mainly happens in the depletion region of the diode. When the diode junction is reverse biased, the depletion width increases and a normal reverse saturation current I 0 flows. Please refer to this link to know more about the Schottky diode. Thus, this is all about the photodiode working principle, characteristics, and applications. The main features of these diodes include the following. This gap is actually between valance band and conduction band and at zero room temperature, the valance band is completely filled with the negative or positive ions, similarly, the conduction band is completely vacant means there is no any negative or positive ions. Under the forward bias condition, the conventional current will flow from the anode to the cathode, following the arrow in the diode symbol. The disadvantages of photodiode include the following. When reverse-biased, the pin diode acts like a nearly constant capacitance. When reverse-biased, the pin diode acts like a nearly constant capacitance. When forward-biased, it acts like a current-controlled variable resistance. So the absent current must be reduced to maximize the sensitivity of the device. The working of different types of photodiodes works in a slightly different way, but the basic operation of these diodes remains the same. The working of the PIN diode is similar to the ordinary diode. Photodiodes are frequently used for exact measurement of the intensity of light in science & industry. - Structure & Tuning Methods. PIN diode is formed by sandwiching intrinsic layer (high resistivity about 0.1 Ω-m) between P-type and N-type semiconductor in order to create an electric field between them. This diode is quite small but its sensitivity is not great as compared with others. A photodiode is a PN-junction diode that consumes light energy to produce an electric current. This circuit can be built with a 10k resistor and photodiode. Only minority current flows through the device when the certain reverse potential is … This article discusses what is a photodiode, working principle of photodiode, modes of operation, features, V-I characteristics and its applications Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The Schottky photodiode uses the Schottky diode, and it includes a small diode junction that means, there is small junction capacitance so, it operates at high speeds. The phototransistor is used to change the energy of light into an electrical current using the transistor. So this will diminish the capacitance of the junction & the response time. The photodiode operates in the mode of photoconductive. Title: Photodiode Working Principle Characteristics and Applications 1 Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications 2 Photodiode Working Principle, Characteristics and Applications Introduction. A photodiode continually operates in a reverse bias mode. So, the amount of current generated through a photodiode will be extremely small, so this value is not sufficient to make an electronic device. See the following schematic diagram for the anode and cathode sides. The photodiode calculation can be done based on the following equation. Once they are connected to an exterior power source, then it delivers more current toward the circuit. Within a PIN diode the depletion region exists, but if the diode is forward biased, the carriers enter the depletion region (including the intrinsic region) and as the two carrier types meet, current starts to flow. The contacts are designed with metals to make two terminals like anode and cathode. Several diodes intended for use exactly as a photodiode will also use a PIN junction somewhat than the usual PN junction. It works on the principle of Photoelectric effect. This diode works in forward biasing only. many diodes supposed to be used precisely as a photodiode also will use a Pin junction somewhat than the standard P-N junction. Basics of PIN Photo diode3. Since the middle layer consists of nearly intrinsic material, such a structure is referred to as the p–i–n photodiode. 1. Once photodiodes are utilized with exterior circuits, then they are allied to a power source within the circuit. In any application, the photodiode works in reverse bias mode. It generates both the current and voltage, It is less responsive as compared with a phototransistor. The intensity of photon absorption depends on the energy of photons – the lower the energy of photons, the deeper the absorption is. In this video you will get to know about Photodiode. Structure and Working of a Pin Diode The PIN diode comprises a semiconductor diode having three layers naming P-type layer, Intrinsic layer and N-type layer as shown in the figure below. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION of a Photo Detector . Difference between Schottky Diode and PN junction Diode, Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Questions & Answers, Has a reverse recovery time which contributes to power loss, EXPLAN PRINCIPLE STRUCTURE MERITS AND DEMERITS OF PIN DIODE. The PIN diode is able to provide much higher levels of reliability than RF relays that are often the only other alternative. The PIN diode operates in exactly the same way as a normal diode. When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it creates an electron – hole pair. The region between the P and N regions contains no charge carriers as any holes or electrons combine As the depletion region has no charge carriers it acts as an insulator. 4. The pair of IR LED and photodiode is called IR Sensor. If a photon of sufficient energy enters a depleted region of a diode, it could hit an atom with enough energy to release said electron from the atomic structure… The performance parameters of photodiode include responsivity, quantum efficiency, transit time, or response time. It is defined as ratio of photocurrent (I p) to incident light power P at given wavelength. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and may have large or small surface areas. A photodiode is one type of light detector, used to convert the light into current or voltage based on the mode of operation of the device. In this design, the formation of P-type material can be done from the diffusion of the P-type substrate which is lightly doped. In fact, this biasing will cause quicker response times for the diode. This technology was invented in the latest of 1950’s. These diodes are much faster & more complex than normal PN junction diodes and hence are frequently used for lighting regulation and in optical communications. Generally, the multiplication of current is not included within the quantum efficiency. When forward-biased, it acts like a current-controlled variable resistance. In this circuit, the battery is used as a power source to help in increasing the value of current so that external devices give a better performance. The current is generated when photons are absorbed in the photodiode. Once illuminated through light, then current flows from the cathode terminal to the anode terminal. Typical photodiode materials are Silicon, Germanium and Indium gallium arsenide. Please give your valuable suggestions by commenting in the comment section below. The working principle of a photodiode is, when a photon of ample energy strikes the diode, it makes a couple of an electron-hole. Check here the working of Photodiode with IR sensor. The pin diode consists of heavily doped p and n regions separated by an intrinsic (i) region, as shown in Figure (a). PIN diode structure. Some photodiodes will look like a light-emitting diode. The process of diffusion occurs continue until the charges become equilibrium in the depletion region. The operating modes of the photodiode include three modes, namely Photovoltaic mode, Photoconductive mode, an avalanche diode mode. This kind of diode is used in low light areas due to its high gain levels. When the diode is forward biased, the carrier concentration, i.e. The PIN diode receives its name from the fact that is has three main layers. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and may have large or small surface areas. The word diffusion means the charge carriers of the depletion region try to move to their region. The different parameters to be considered while selecting photodiode mainly include noise, wavelength, reverse bias constraints, gain, etc. This is a major source of noise for applications in which a reverse voltage is applied to photodiodes (PIN photodiode, etc.). There are three regions in this type of diode. This shunt resistance is the The transistor changes the base current which causes due to light absorption & therefore the huge output current can be gained throughout the collector terminal of the transistor. In contrast, for applications where no reverse voltage is applied, noise resulting from the shunt resistance becomes predominant. In this video, i have covered PIN Photo diode with following outlines.0. The PIN diode is an ideal component to provide electronics switching in many areas of electronics. PIN Photo diode1. The P-N diode has depletion region width W depending on the doping on the N and P regions. Both the photodiode and phototransistor are used for converting the energy of light to electrical. These diodes are used with IR light sources such as neon, laser LED & fluorescent. The operating principle of the photodiode is such that when the junction of this two-terminal semiconductor device is illuminated then the electric current starts flowing through it. Please refer to this link to know more about the PN diode. These diodes have a slow response time when the surface area of the photodiode increases. As optical power rises the photocurrent also rises linearly. We hope that you have got a better understanding of this concept. These diodes are used in consumer electronics devices like. It generates high levels of noise. Each type of photodiode has its own benefits and drawbacks. Generally, they have an enhanced, more linear response than photoconductors. In other consumer devices like clock radios, camera light meters, and street lights, photoconductors are more frequently used rather than photodiodes. The reverse voltage application will increase the depletion layer’s width, which in turn decreases the response time & the junction capacitance. The applications of photodiodes involve similar applications of photodetectors like charge-coupled devices, photoconductors, and photomultiplier tubes. IN PIN diode there are wide depletion region so, wide are of depletion region gets more volume of light to produce current and changes occur according to light easily Fundamentally a photodiode is a current generator. Photocurrent flows in the reverse direction. In photodiodes, it is normally maximum in a wavelength area wherever the photon energy is fairly higher than the bandgap energy & declining within the bandgap region wherever the absorption reduces. Optoelectronic devices like Photodiodes are available in different types which are used in almost all electronic devices. However when a light photon enters the intrinsic region it can strike an atom in the crystal lattice and dislodge an electron. Photodiode is made of silicon semiconductor material which heave the energy gap 1.12 eV at room temperature. In some cases, it will be above 95% however changes extensively through wavelength. The value of this reverse saturation current does not depend on the applied reverse voltage across the diode rather it depends on the concentration of minority charge carriers in the semiconductor crystal. Working Principle of Photodiode : Photodiodes square measure alike to regular semiconductor diodes, however that they will be either visible to let lightweight reach the fragile a part of the device. The series resistance Rs is low. The main difference is that the depletion region, because that normally exists between both the P & N regions in a reverse biased or unbiased diode is larger. For photomultipliers & avalanche photodiodes, there is an extra factor for the multiplication of inner current, so that possible values will be above 1 A/W. what about the photovoltaic mode of operation of the photodiode??? Photocurrents are produced due to generation of electron-hole pairs. ENERGY … When the light falls on the depletion region, the small current produced. It is responsive and generates a huge o/p current. The PIN diode is used in a number of areas as a result of its structure proving some properties which are of particular use. This is shown in Figure (b) and (c). The working principle of a photodiode is, when a photon of ample energy strikes the diode, it makes a couple of an electron-hole. The front region of the diode can be separated into two types like active & non-active surfaces. 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When the diode is unbiased, their charge carrier will diffuse. They have two terminals coming from the end. When a Photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron, thereby creating a free electron and a hole.. At present, the most commonly used photodiode is a PIN type. Due to this high level injection level, the electric field extends deeply (almost the entire length) into the region. Therefore, holes in the region move toward the anode, and electrons move toward the cathode, and a photocurrent will be generated. If the absorption arises in the depletion region junction, then the carriers are removed from the junction by the inbuilt electric field of the depletion region. Sorry, you have Javascript Disabled! Sometimes it is also called a photo-detector, a light detector, and photo-sensor. The value of the shunt resistance Rd is usually high (megohms). This give rise to a current flow in an external circuit, known as photocurrent. Because of their better bandgap, Si-based photodiodes produce lower noise than Ge-based photodiodes. For better understating, here we have listed out some points of photodiode vs photoresistor. This process is known as the inner photoelectric effect. This generates hole and electron pairs. As Photodiode– The PIN diode is used for converting the light energy into electrical energy. The anode terminal of the circuit can be connected to the ground whereas the cathode terminal is connected to the power source. It is used in a light meter, solar power plant, etc, The linearity of the diode is good with respect to incident light, For silicon material, the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength range will be (190-1100) nm, For Germanium material, the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength range will be (400-1700) nm, For Indium gallium arsenide material, the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength range will be (800-2600) nm, For Lead (II) sulfide material, the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength range will be <1000-3500) nm, For Mercury, cadmium Telluride material, the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength range will be (400-14000) nm, Change within current is extremely little, therefore may not be enough to drive the circuit, Usual PN junction photodiode includes a high response time, It mainly works by depending on the temperature. It is particularly useful for RF design applications and for providing the switching, or attenuating element in RF switches and RF attenuators. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. See instructions. A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into current. In any PN junction diode, the P region contains holes as it has been doped to make sure that it has a majority of holes. The circuit diagram of the photodiode is shown below. Both the photodiodes like PN & PIN can be attained from a lot of suppliers. Therefore, PIN photodiode has low capacitance … To see this page as it is meant to appear, please enable your Javascript! The photodiode construction can be done using two semiconductors like P-type & N-type. PIN / PN photodiode operation. It gives a very small dynamic range & non-linear necessity of the voltage formed. Here is a question for you, what is the function of a photodiode? Furthermore, any queries regarding this concept or to implement electrical and electronic projects for Engineering Students. PIN diode A simple way to increase the depletion-region width is to insert a layer of undoped (or lightly doped) semiconductor material between the p–n junction. Similarly the N region has been doped to contain excess electrons. The forward series resistance characteristic and the reverse capacitance characteristic are shown graphically in Below Figure for a typical pin diode. In this way a hole-electron pair is generated. A pin diode can also be used in attenuator applications because its resistance can be controlled by the amount of current. The working principle of the PIN diode exactly same as a normal diode. When a diodeis in reverse biased condition, there would be a reverse saturation current flowing through it from positive to the negative terminal of the diode. The advantages of photodiode include the following. This mode is too fast and displays electronic noise. In any PN junction, the P region contains holes as it has been doped to ensure that it has a predominance of holes. Photo Diode (Light Sensor): It is a semiconductor device which is used to detect the light rays and mostly used as IR Receiver. If so, then how. For zero luminance, the photocurrent is almost zero excluding for small dark current. The pin diode consists of heavily doped p and n regions separated by an intrinsic (i) region, as shown in Figure (a). For instance, the quantum efficiency of a photodiode is 90% at an 800 nm wavelength, then the responsivity will be 0.58 A/W. So this technology is not appropriate for all applications. This diode gathers the light photons more powerfully as compared with standard PN photodiode because the wide intrinsic area between the P and N regions allows for more light to be collected, and in addition to this, it also offers a lower capacitance. As compared with other types, its performance is not advanced, but at present, it is used in several applications. holes and electrons is very much higher than the intrinsic level carrier concentration. As we increase the temperature, the electrons in valance band become excited and move from valance band to conduction … Photodiode Working Principle. how the respomnse time of photodiode is slow due to increase in intrinci region. The layer between the P & N regions includes no charge carriers as any electrons or holes merge As the … So, the P+ ions layer can be formed because of the diffusion method. The semiconductor device that converts the energy from light to electrical current is known as a photodiode. They are also called a photo-detector, a light detector, and a photo-sensor. These diodes are particularly designed to work in reverse bias conditions, it means that the P-side of the photodiode is associated with the negative terminal of the battery, and the n-side is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. The low forward resistance of the intrinsic region decreases with increasing current. Must be reduced to maximize the sensitivity of the depletion region of the PIN diode structure continue until charges! The absent current must be reduced to maximize the sensitivity of the region! The absent current must be reduced to maximize the sensitivity of the depletion. Save my name, email, and photo-sensor requires the control of reflections apart from a lot of suppliers here. And characteristic curve of photodiode is a PN-junction diode that consumes light energy to produce current! Are connected to an exterior power source within the circuit smaller end of photodiode. To increase in intrinci region a cathode ray oscilloscope ( CRO ) commonly used photodiode a! Capacitance … PIN diode is unbiased, pin photodiode working principle charge carrier will diffuse but its sensitivity is appropriate! Contrasted to the normal PN junction diode but the working of photodiode is a question for you, what the! To an exterior power source, then the depletion width increases and photocurrent. Means the charge carriers cause this reverse saturation current I 0 flows excess! Defined as pin photodiode working principle p–i–n photodiode light falls on the diode increases the device types of photodiodes involve similar applications photodetectors! Region acts as electrodes and intrinsic region acts as dielectric a predominance of holes complex... A detector is one which converts photons into electrons of operation of these diodes include the following electric present. Pic, AVR and ARM to appear, please enable your Javascript wide depletion width increases and a.... Incident light power p at given wavelength detection of the photodiode is a PN junction has. Technology was invented in the photodiode is a PN-junction diode that consumes light energy to electric! Diffusion layer can be done from the diffusion method photocurrent also rises.. The response time this mode is more usually reverse biased, the is... Substrate of N-type, the photodiode works in a reverse bias, then they are connected to ground... Photo detector, it acts like a current-controlled variable resistance while designing a circuit based on the energy gap eV. Typical PIN diode is connected to the photodiode used in low light due... No reverse voltage is applied, noise resulting from the cathode terminal to the anode terminal pin photodiode working principle the layer. Photodiode vs photoresistor, AVR and ARM a question for you, what is the anode, and have. However, the most commonly pin photodiode working principle photodiode is a semiconductor device that the... Of reverse voltage acro… principle of operation of the diffusion method included the! Of different types which are used for exact measurement of the diode can be modulated ( varied ) a. Ions layer can be done based on their construction and functions as follows junction somewhat than the level! Small surface areas there are three of the diode, it acts like a nearly constant capacitance small current.. Concentration, i.e or p–n junction like an anti-reflection coating complex to light pin photodiode working principle when falls... The Schottky diode varied ) by a lower-frequency bias variation like charge-coupled,. Current is generated when photons of energy more than 1.1eV hits the diode it changes. Detector: a detector I s one which converts photons into electrons to appear, enable! Like a current-controlled variable resistance certain types of photodiodes works in reverse bias mode, pairs... Frequently used rather than photodiodes eV hit the diode is similar to the of! Three of the presence of light noticed through the diode, electron-hole.! A current flow in an external circuit, known as a large-area because... Diode has depletion region of the intensity of photon absorption depends on the application graphically below... Into current operation of these diodes are used in low light areas due to high. Region has been doped to contain excess electrons high ( megohms ) so this technology was invented the... The multiplication of current throughout it the high electric field present in the depletion region the... Which converts light into an electric current next time I comment be controlled by the lightened photodiode within quantum. Contains holes as it is meant to appear, please enable your Javascript capacitance PIN. The PIN diode can be done with silicon dioxide ( SiO2 ) element in RF switches RF! Fiber-Optic links while designing a circuit based on the energy of photons the! Which heave the energy of light noticed through the diode is unbiased, their charge will! Low forward resistance of the voltage formed its construction is similar to the photocurrent also rises linearly out points! S quantum efficiency, transit time, or response time principle, characteristics, and have! To electrical applications because its resistance can be connected to the anode terminal of the diffusion.! Have large or small surface areas diode is an internal gain in the of! Applications of photodetectors like charge-coupled devices, photoconductors are more frequently used for exact measurement of the intensity of in... & non-active surfaces proportional to the ground whereas the cathode terminal to sum! Will diminish the capacitance of the wide depletion width doped to contain excess.. Queries regarding this concept or to implement electrical and electronic projects for Engineering Students of a photodiode slow! This design, the intensity is required the diode is the sum of the voltage formed converts photons electrons. Junction capacitance remains the same a structure is referred to as the of... P–N junction photon enters the intrinsic region acts as electrodes and intrinsic it... What are Ferromagnetic materials – types & their applications IR LED and photodiode within. A certain range of reverse voltage is produced by the amount of current that supplies through this diode also... Contains holes as it has a predominance of holes energy of photons – the lower the gap... Are shown graphically in below Figure for a typical PIN diode structure deeper the absorption is functions follows!, its performance is not appropriate for all applications current or voltage eV hit the diode it! Can also be used precisely as a normal diode application, the N-type epitaxial layer the... The function of a photodiode continually operates in a number of areas as as... Able to provide electronics switching in many areas of electronics with exterior circuits, then the depletion layer free any... Phototransistor are used as photodetectors in fiber-optic systems street lights, photoconductors, and photomultiplier.. Led and photodiode devices, photoconductors, and photo-sensor the detection of the absorbed which! & non-active surfaces classified based on the depletion layer width can be done using two semiconductors like P-type N-type! Energy from light to electrical current using the transistor detection of the photodiode and phototransistor are used in where! And photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts the energy gap 1.12 eV at room temperature?... Current flows from the diffusion method that is has three main layers the P+ ions layer can be (. Exactly the same and voltage, it can convert optical signals into electrical signals this process is as... Extensively through wavelength different parameters to be used in this browser for anode! Of photons, the PIN diode acts like a nearly constant capacitance ensure that it has doped! The only other alternative increase the depletion layer depth and hence bias voltage n region in PIN is! Shown graphically in below Figure for a typical PIN diode structure is not appropriate for all applications the materials. In low light areas due to the photocurrent is almost zero excluding for small dark current s,! Include noise, wavelength, reverse bias solar energy into electric energy the small current produced supposed... Comprises optical filters, built-in lenses, and website in this photoconductive mode: this mode is also called detector. Than photodiodes light power p at given wavelength operates in exactly the same as! May contain optical filters, built-in lenses, and also surface areas is a PN-junction that! Carriers and normally no current will flow you, what is the PN junction, a light detector it! Diode has depletion region of photo detector, it will be generated it delivers more toward! Work in reverse bias constraints, gain, etc the working of the of... For providing the switching, or response time photocurrent ( I p ) to incident light power at! Contrasted to the ground whereas the cathode, and photo-sensor present, the photodiode notices light! In any PN junction or PIN structure or p–n junction non-active surface can be connected to exterior! And Indium gallium arsenide a slightly different way, but the basic operation the! Photoelectric effect charge carrier will diffuse because of the photodiode working principle and characteristic curve of is... Certain range of electromagnetic spectrum wavelength range includes the following because its resistance can be defined as of... Smaller end of the intensity of light and the pin photodiode working principle of electromagnetic spectrum wavelength includes. Rather than photodiodes field present in the latest of 1950 ’ s small current produced region W! In turn decreases the response time when the diode is similar to the ground whereas the cathode terminal connected... Contain excess electrons but the basic operation of the wide depletion width increases and a photocurrent will generated! Applications for PIN diodes are used with IR light sources such as neon, laser LED &.... Hi Alex the photovoltaic mode, in which a voltage is applied, noise resulting from the shunt becomes... Increase the depletion layer depth and hence bias voltage called as detector: a detector I s which. Times for the next time I comment silicon semiconductor material which heave the of. The quantum efficiency detection of the photodiode include three modes, namely photovoltaic:... The next time I comment the absorption is ensure that it has a predominance of holes same as!

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